非洲文化:BATAMMARIBA--Those who shape the land

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古帕玛库景观位于多哥东北部,延伸入邻国贝宁,是巴塔马利巴人的居住区。当地富有特色的塔奇恩塔泥制塔屋,被认为是多哥著名的象征。在这个景观里,自然和宗教仪式以及社会信仰紧紧地联系在一起。这个占地5万公顷的文化景观因是塔奇恩塔泥制塔屋的建筑风格而闻名于世,这种风格反映了社会结构、当地的农田和森林,以及人与景观的联系。许多建筑物高为二层并且都带有谷仓,谷仓下面是圆柱形的基座,上面覆有圆形顶部。有些建筑物的屋顶是平的,其他建筑则带有锥形的干草屋顶。这些建筑分布在村落中,还包括宗教场所、泉水、岩石和举行成人仪式的场所。( k0 w' D- o( F/ k$ {

) L. @& L1 S/ \/ H' S: p, A5 s8 S6 S/ DBATAMMARIBA:意思我们是地球的真正建造者
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Batammariba (also known as Tamberma, Somba, Bataba, Batammaraba, Ditamari, Niend and Tamari) are agro-pastoralist Oti-Volta, Gur-speaking and indigenous architecturally advanced people living in the mountainous regions of two West African countries of Togo and Benin.) Q0 d) X& A2 [9 E/ G' G
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Tamberma (Batammariba) women wearing their traditional antelope headdress, Togo. , P- k9 G! d; |' K. n
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In Togo, they are residing in the northeastern Kara regions of Northern Togo with the Kabye (kabre) people,who are the second largest tribe in Togo.+ V: r( x/ h1 g" f  {: Z6 Q' n) L

4 D: R2 k" q9 Y* F& _6 `9 x1 T Tamberma (Batamariba) woman wearing antelope hedddress,Togo& _8 Z3 W, F/ |- Y7 k

8 F9 R, T- d4 D) d7 B$ A  However, Batammariba are internationally famous than their neighbours, Kabye people, as a result of their indigenous architectural expertise. In Benin where they are known as Somba, they occupy the rugged Atakora mountain range (Atakora Department) of northwestern Benin sharing border with their Gur relatives in neighbouring Burkina Faso who also possess keen interest in architecture.
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Batammariba man playing traditional musical instrument.                 # h# k" R! h" ~# y( _0 h8 r8 }

3 q- J, h+ u; g, l, Q8 S9 f The Batammariba or Somba people are historically known for their ancient penis elongation and enlargement techniques. The Somba people practice this technique during male initiation into adulthood. A traditional herbs is pounded and robbed on the penis.0 W3 {5 V) ]/ T; M3 J$ R1 ^

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  O" G& X8 u' Z# | Somba开始经受阴茎延长的做法。 Circa 1910大约1910年
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在此之后,树的分支或象牙被切断,具有特定大小的孔是由在启动。 The initiate put his penis in it for some months until it reach a particular size and length of his choice then he removes it.抛砖引玉把他的阴茎在里面了几个月,直到达到他的选择那么一个特定的大小和长度,然后拿掉。
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Somba(Batammariba)男子与他的拉长和扩大阴茎。 Circa 1953大约1953年

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Somba means 'naked;' the Somba still live in their traditional ways and in certain Tayaba-Somba tribes, the fetish priests still dress in a simple loincloth and the women wear only sarongs.
0 I/ Q3 o9 W3 a  N$ j# OSomba意思是“赤身露体” the Somba still live in their traditional ways and in certain Tayaba-Somba tribes, the fetish priests still dress in a simple loincloth and the women wear only sarongs.在Somba仍然生活在他们的传统方式和特定Tayaba-Somba部落,迷信道士依然身穿简单缠,女人只穿围裙。
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" C2 N) P; o4 E! \. b" x3 aBatammariba people
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# P4 [) z+ G) K9 m7 @( o4 t9 D! V The Batammariba are estimated to be about 176000, with an estimated number (majority) of about 140,000 living in Benin and about 36,000 of them living in Togo. A person from Tamberma tribe  is called Otammari, call themselves as Betammaribe and their language as Ditammari.! d# A8 h' j0 w2 D
该Batammariba估计为约176000,以约14万居住在贝宁的估计人数(占多数)和关于它们36000居住在多哥。 A person from Tamberma tribe  is called Otammari, call themselves as Betammaribe and their language as Ditammari.一个人从Tamberma部落被称为Otammari,称自己为Betammaribe和他们的语言Ditammari。 1 w/ m. c8 V0 _$ Z* i& [* R/ ]
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Batammariba woman from Koutammakou, Togo
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1 A. l  N& N; H% ~' U The name Batammariba means "the people who are the real builders of earth." The colonialist also gave them the name Tamberma which means “Good Builders.”  Most Batammariba resides in Koutammakou popularly referred to as "the land of the Batammariba," a traditional settlement known for the architecture of mud Takienta tower-houses. These buildings have two stories, and either flat or conical thatched roofs., M. k4 x. B+ G/ e2 M3 [
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Tamberma initiate. Northern Benin | ©Michel Renaudeau
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& \2 L* c" Y3 g1 u' ^; ] The Batammariba people can be found in mountainous and sloppy-stony valleys of Kara region, Kande Prefecture, east of Kanté, and Benin border.Their main centers are Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, Koutougou.  f, p3 {7 D$ M: B& X
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                                 Batammariba settlement6 B* A' `, d5 w& l- M4 l! V$ h/ u
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  In Benin The Somba is from Atakora, a mountainous area in the North East of Togo of about 2 700 km2, between 9° 38’ N and 10° 38’ N and 1° 30’ E and 2° E.(Adanléhoussi et al., 2003). They can be located in Atakora Province, Boukombe and Natitingou sub-prefectures; along Djougou-Parakou road.
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                                       Tamberma settlement
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9 v4 `+ ?6 Q& U$ k7 A The Batammariba speak Ditammari, an Oti-Volta language which belongs to Gurma languages of larger Niger-Congo family. The Batammariba language relates to other Gurma languages such as Gangan, Gurma, Moba, Bassar, Nawda, etc.7 I% C. r* D9 w- a6 W0 @" K
Batammariba说Ditammari语言,奥蒂 - 沃尔语言属于Gurma较大尼日尔 - 刚果语系。 The Batammariba language relates to other Gurma languages such as Gangan, Gurma, Moba, Bassar, Nawda, etc.该Batammariba语言涉及到其他Gurma语言,如闯敢干,Gurma,莫巴,巴萨尔,Nawda等。 8 T2 ?3 `8 {  Y8 Y3 O/ o$ q
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    The Batammariba Girl with the Striking Eyes, Koutammakou, Togo. By wildernesstravel1 i' Q% D7 {7 |4 m6 X3 k+ ~
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) H2 _& b, k3 k0 M6 G8 \( z, e As it happens to most small indigenous African tribes that have occupied their land for ages, the origins of the Batammariba are somewhat uncertain.5 C+ P" C7 |' u7 w

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  Archaeological investigations and oral history indicates that the Batammariba migrated to their present home from the north and northwest around Burkina Faso where they were living with the Mossi people sometime between the 16th and 18th centuries.
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Somba Warriors fighting with tribal weapons,Benin.
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This historical account could be true as the language and building style reflects that of other people in the area such as the Gangan, Gurma, Moba, Bassar, Nawda, etc.
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* {1 L5 ~* V2 kBatammariba family enjoying story by the fireside
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7 a& ^! y. D( x% h0 b" G7 k7 N3 y The Tamberma are agro-pastoralists by tradition. Creation and accumulation of capital heritage is based$ X8 Y6 e" H- D( l, i1 k$ v$ ]
on chickens, their primary livestock. Poultry are sold or exchanged for sheep or goats which may then be
' U0 C* A8 D' A* U" ~ commercialized to buy cattle (N’Poh and N’Guissan,1998). The size of a family’s herd is a sign of its wealth.
4 p2 E7 C& t' x- h9 q Livestock are for security and play a role in the community’s spiritual life (N’Poh et N’Guissan, 1998). Eighty percent of animals are raised for socio-cultural purposes (52 percent for funerals and 28 percent as
9 G* I' M3 k/ n( F; Y0 ]6 @ dowries), leaving only 20 percent for sale (N’Poh and N’Guissan, 1998). Hides are used to make dresses for folklore ceremonies (Cornevin, 1973).! U( I9 h! ~# a" P: R( p% A
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Tamberma initiates. Northern Benin | ©Michel Renaudeau

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The Batammariba have a special breed of cattle known as Somba breed. The Somba, typical of the tropical subhumid area, is a shorthorn derived from Bos taurus brachyceros, within which it belongs to the Savanna type (not the dwarf Lagoon type) (Meyer, 1998). It is thought to be the mother of the locally adapted cattle breeds in the Gulf of Guinea (Adoméfa et al., 2002).
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& @0 F1 ]0 Q7 d8 Y& _1 X3 V                          Somba cattle0 Q& D: {- K1 |) x% U" b
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  The Somba is classified among hardy, trypanotolerant West African cattle. (Morkramer and Dékpo, 1984). The Somba varies from 0.90 up to 1 metre at shoulder height; adult weight is 172 ± 13 kg. It usually has a black-and-white coat, although some are entirely black, red, or red-and white (Adanléhoussi et al., 2003)." E9 s; |) b, ]8 W! F8 A# q5 F
" @' g/ F9 I, f$ D$ S6 r8 b2 jMixed farming
. N2 }* \0 J  Z$ k6 \+ `9 v* o Crops grown are: sorghum, groundnuts, fonio (Digitaria exilis), millet and more recently, maize. Thirty-four
3 S, R% Z3 ?  e& a5 X percent of farmers use some form of crop residues as cattle feed (Adoméfa et al., 2002 and N’Poh and
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- q8 V/ K  H1 |0 c" i7 W Manure is collected as fertilizer. Crops generate 16 000 CFA (32 US$) per farm per year, while cattle, which used to be capital savings, generate 40 000 CFA (80 US$) (Adoméfa et al., 2002). Livestock are clearly the farmer’s main source of income.
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' i( z( i. e) ~4 @8 P! ]) m6 L4 z& IDivision of labour
9 m( W; i6 a  c" { In terms of pastoral economy, Tamberma men look after cattle whilst women tend goats and poultry.
7 ?( o, O% E- C9 F# l8 d The size of the Somba cow matches the castle where it is kept. A change in size would require a readjustment in terms of housing (N’Poh and N’Guissan, 1998). For dowries and ritual sacrifice, only the Somba breed of cattle is used. A Tamberma, on reaching a certain age, sacrifices a bull to his ancestors (N’Poh and N’Guissan, 1998).
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Batammariba man and a woman
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In farming, men weed the land and do most of the planting with little support from women. Women also perform almost all the household chores with their children.+ s6 W2 A! q: S2 y

1 w- W  b3 O+ W$ o# V& Q( W0 Z* L$ e                         Tamberma (Batammariba) Family
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  Tamberma people hold strongly to the traditional African religion and the traditional African life. Like all Gurma group, Tamberma people worship the earth god.& x% u/ d. ]( z7 ~% N1 O

2 f( s# }+ f# w! ]                                         Tamberma shrine. Yves Regaldi
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Their traditional worship is seen in their architecture which is characterized by castle-like, adobe dwellings that are one of the more astonishing examples of African architecture.
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Batammariba old man smoking pipe at Walengo village,northern Togo. alan miller
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. W' _8 F$ R! }8 A* d Ancestral shrines (liboloni) with a phallic shape spiritually protect the triangular entrance of each home. Though Tamberma began to build their  fortress-like houses in the 18th century to protect themselves from the slave raids of the marauding Dahomey warriors, but they also have the belief that their shrines and belief in ancestors protected them from their enemies raids.9 [. e$ _& r7 L. N2 ?
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                                Batammariba earth priest. Yves Regaldi. u: T. I. r  G: e4 B$ h
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                          Batammariba people at Wartema village,Tamberma Valley,northern Togo. alan miller
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Tamberma people engage in elaborate funeral performances called "Tibenti" (The dance of drums) to honor their deceased male and female elders3 [# h, i0 A6 f
2 `/ O- _: d/ b8 S# j5 p                                                 Batammariba priest5 P# C. j4 G, l3 M
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. In Tamberma culture when a person dies they say "Onitiloua" (The Person Sleeps.) The Tibenti rituals is climaxed by "turning over" (bita) ceremony on the house entrance roof.+ O% v* Y2 F! Q2 x3 F9 u6 O2 I4 a
Read further here:Tamberma-funeral-performances
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                     Batammariba woman with her child1 y0 ]2 ?: q- n; G' G7 E
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Lifoni Rituals7 C( P  }1 x, ^: e5 |% `
When a man dies,you do Lifoni [men's initiation] to him again? that which he did before he died. And when he brings out a child, the child will know that. If you do not do this, when he dies,the child will refuse[to be initiated]... the child will die.9 u; K7 M/ k! d# i
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Batammariba woman

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  As are inforcement of this idea, several Tamberma elders have  suggested that the funeral play as a whole is structured around the men's and women's initiation cycle.This is defined by the rituals and ordering of the various funeral sequences./ J+ d2 z7 r+ M5 V
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0 \* R/ t/ j; U& y. ~ As one priest explained,"Dressing the house with funeral cloths is like dressing the novices at Lifoni"(men's initiation).In the final public rites of initiation, rich cloths are draped over the shoulders of the male and female novices  (like those draped over the  upper stories of the funeral house), cowries are hung around their  necks and waists (like those placed around the  portal), and horned headdresses are placed  on their heads (paralleling the earthen horns on the center of  the entrance roof).
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Somba man standing outside of his house (Tata Somba). Benin | ©Anthony Pappone
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; h. {4 J7 U! n/ F4 ]% q. c Through symbolicaction, the house is thus reinitiated to represent and nurture its  new youth (future offspring). Read further:Tamberma-funeral-performances
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    Koutammakou, the land of the Batammariba; K+ f* ]; B3 `4 C# `! o
The name which they chose to call themselves, Batammaliba, a term meaning the 'people who are the real builders of earth.' Each building is constructed by a single architect-builder (otammaii) who 'signs' his work on the foundation with a special symbol.+ y( ~' |# e/ x  C
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A group of community master architects meets for the foundation laying and approves each design Batammariba residences each of which shelters a single, generally nuclear family, consist of two-storey earthen units which share similar formal attributes
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. A west-facing door leads through a small entryway containing several grain mortars to a large, sombre ground-floor area called the 'cattle room where domestic animals and fowl are housed at night. Positioned in this chamber as vell are the altars of key male ancestors and a platform bed for the senior man of the house.
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; s/ K  N5 ]/ t7 h A raised kitchen is situated adjacent to the cattle room and serves as the primary means of access to the terrace Also on the terrace level are positioned a sleeping room used by the senior woman of the house and her young children. An auxiliary sleeping room and various crop drying and storage areas are found on this level as well.
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  At the centre of the terrace is a ritual hole covered by a flat circular stone, the latter being used as a dining table for the family evening meal eventually the stone is taken to the cemetery to be used as a tombstone two clay granaries project from the front corners of each structure. The southwestern granary contains crops identified with men, the southeastern granary houses the women's crops terrace level drainage pipes carry potentially damaging rainwater away from the structure.# O+ D9 \; A2 E# I5 \0 s' v

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. g/ d9 P% X) Q1 a Key features of the house complement human anatomical parts as evidenced in language use, visual attributes, and actions directed toward the house in contexts of everyday and ritual use. Among the more salient of these anatomical parallels are the doorway-mouth, window-eyes, granary-stomach, moi tar-teeth side drainage pipe-penis, sleeping room-vagina, and back drainage pipe-anus. The earthen core of each building in turn recalls human flesh, the incised surface plaster complements local skin cichatrization patterns.
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0 w' b* y3 ~4 V9 X! y, n  When a senior resident of the house dies, the structure is draped with cloths to suggest a youth at the time of his initiation In addition to suggesting human physical features, each house also incorporates mound form altars to shelter the soul
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Batammaliba religious concerns can be seen in certain features of architecture and village planning as well Each house faces the west (or more accurately southwest) in order to look onto the domicile of the solar deity, Kuiye, in the southwestern sky. Key architectural elements, including the earthen 'horns' above the door, the hole in the centre of the terrace, and a conical mound in front of the door, serve as a locus for Kuiye worship The female earth goddess.% N( x- ^% d, V7 N3 V1 ]

7 F6 y$ F% z* }+ a& `! p8 |0 H  Butan, is identified both with the earthen core of each structure and with special clay and plants taken from a local spring which are inserted into the foundation the image of a human which is mapped out on the village landscape in the course of ritual paths is identified with this goddess as well.! k5 i$ U# n, f7 y( c
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  Both attached and freestanding mound-form shrines dedicated to key ancestors are found throughout the house, those of the men on the ground floor, those of the women on the terrace level. Other deities and spirits similarly have special shrines or altars within the house, each such sacrosanct power being signaled through special path-form symbols positioned on the building facade which serve to direct gods and worshipers to the appropriate structure for ceremonies0 ~; W% Q5 C; `4 l

! s3 F* X. [. U' {% W; p( n source:ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1057e/a1057e04.pdf4 u( K' [( i9 e: h2 P0 R
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; w% X7 I; \# e/ ?The 50,000-ha cultural landscape is remarkable due to the architecture of its tower-houses which are a reflection of social structure; its farmland and forest; and the associations between people and landscape. Many of the buildings are two storeys high and those with granaries feature an almost spherical form above a cylindrical base. Some of the buildings have flat roofs, others have conical thatched roofs. They are grouped in villages, which also include ceremonial spaces, springs, rocks and sites reserved for initiation ceremonies.4 E* S# n  d1 O' B. y' u0 K

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In 2004, UNESCO designated the villages in which these tower houses are located as a cultural landscape. As reported by afrol News, this wasthe first Togo location to be inscribed on the World Heritage List. The following is the official citation copied from the UNESCO web site.
World Heritage 28 COM
WHC-04/28.COM/14B REV


! C$ _. n' A7 }% y" ?  H6 |# r1 ]DECISIONS ADOPTED AT THE 28TH SESSION OF
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Tmaberma boy wearing traditional hat

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Somba blacksmith,Atakora,Benin

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Somba woman
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Somba (Batammariba) women dancing,Atakora,Benin

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somba man
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Somba people,Benin

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Somba Man with tribal marks on his face and body. Marks is used as a form of initiation into adulthood, beauty and a sign of a village, tribe, and clan. Natitingou, Benin | © Jean-Michel Clajot
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                  Tourist undergoing Tamberma initiation rituals for women. By Los_Bernhayer1 V# ?% d2 v6 d' S7 s

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Somba (batammariba) blacksmith
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