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[烘焙和烤箱菜] Focaccia 佛卡恰

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发表于 2016-5-3 11:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Focaccia is related to pizza, but not considered to be the same.
Focaccia is quite popular in Italy and is usually seasoned with olive oil and sometimes herbs, and may be topped with onion, cheese and meat, or flavored with a number of vegetables. However, by far the most typical focaccia is simply baked dough topped with olive oil and a simple herb like rosemary or sage, and salted with coarse salt. It is very popular as a snack in Italy and school children will often purchase a slice from a baker on the way to school, to enjoy at break time.
In the late 19th century an Italian immigrant to the United Kingdom created a version of foccacia with a unique English twist. The local baker to Kings Clipstone, Nottinghamshire developed his version, known locally as Italian Lard Bread, using that staple ingredient of every Englishman's diet at that time in history, lard.

% o$ b2 t9 \* e7 K) o( rHomemade Focaccia with olives and herbsFocaccia doughs are similar in style and texture to pizza doughs, consisting of high-gluten flour, oil, water, salt and yeast. It is typically rolled out or pressed by hand into a thick layer of dough and then baked in a stone-bottom or hearth oven. Bakers often puncture the bread with a knife to relieve bubbling on the surface of the bread.
Also common is the practice of dotting the bread. This creates multiple wells in the bread by using a finger or the handle of a utensil to poke the unbaked dough. As a way to preserve moisture in the bread, olive oil is then spread over the dough, by hand or with a pastry brush prior to rising and baking. In the northern part of Italy, lard will sometimes be added to the dough, giving the focaccia a softer, slightly flakier texture. Focaccia recipes are widely available, and with the popularity of bread machines, many cookbooks now provide version of dough recipes that do not require hand kneading.
Focaccia can be used as a side to many meals, as a base for pizza, or as sandwich bread.
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摘自allrecipes 网页; O$ T" _9 Q, e# c
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卡恰的不是恰的发音,它的最后一个音节有点象“霞”(这里有些音标显不出来,本来是想标出国际音标的),该它属于意式扁形面包,操作也不复杂,可加上自己喜欢的香料放在上面,烤过后香气浓郁,最明显的特征是用手指按下去的一个个酒窝。面包比较松软,又带有少少咸味,风味独特。; |& f6 p! W* }( [
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" A8 D- R4 @. a: x* a7 z+ V材料:
, b; d# Y5 P8 A  n9 RA-面团
6 a  c; f9 Q( M, m0 `高筋粉200克
( `3 i, ~0 y, R+ Y) R5 ~水(依面粉的吸水性适量增减)100-115克: y) i) d/ {8 m3 T
盐1/4tsp9 A$ p, W3 Z+ i8 z2 a8 K% E2 E+ E
面包机酵母2/3tsp: o3 `5 v+ _  ?* c+ m1 ~
细砂糖1stp$ I3 u: g, E% W$ G
橄榄油1+1/2茶匙2 F- M1 d% Q# _0 J2 S5 o& o3 `5 |

8 T! T! N1 S! D! c3 K0 F# }" I; pB-面包表面
8 g8 T8 b7 _' o( h海盐 适量2 Q( X7 K" V" u) K. g1 w. m! J& x
橄榄油 适量
5 I+ A- J. U3 v2 ]- P黑胡椒面 适量$ l  Y% l1 \- l) R; S% [
洋葱 约1/4个. |. V3 ]( I5 S2 g0 v: A
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数量:1
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" i  [: K  Y' P0 R0 y7 D% k一、把所需要的水加热至物感温暖,放酵母和糖,静置15分钟;( I8 F/ h$ W/ z# e0 D) _/ V
二、然后把盐与面粉混合,混合后加入步骤(一)的材料,用kitchen aid (搅拌棍为圆曲棍)把面粉搅成团,再加入橄榄油,再搅拌成比较光滑的面团,放在涂了层油的大碗里,面上盖薄膜;
' J! j; p2 C" A, v三、有发面机的最好,放在发面机,一般家庭厨房不备发面机的,可用微波炉把两杯水叮到比较热,两杯热水放在旁边,再把面团入进去,微波炉内就有个温暖的环境了,把门关上,约90分钟,中途最好不要开门,否则暖气会跑掉,千万不要手多多按按钮去转;# g6 G+ m5 z2 |- A" t/ F9 V# m5 s
四、发酵完后放在案板上,稍搓搓去气泡,再滚圆,收口向下,再用薄膜盖住醒面10分钟;3 \4 g$ @3 c; B( {& V. t/ k
五、在烤盘上涂一层橄榄油,为的是烤完后容易脱模;
2 `( j- `7 S; u; n6 _! z六、把面团平摊在烤盘上,在表面刷一层橄榄油;
  O! b$ b+ J) A8 y7 O- n七、用手指在面坯上均匀地戳洞,不一定要戳到底;9 U: K" |0 d, o7 @$ D
八,再用薄膜盖住,让面再发酵20-25分钟;
5 {0 h9 W" ~% v7 \九、在这20分钟的空档时间里,把洋葱切成1.5-2公分长宽的块状;9 t: w; g, V6 F
十、面发好后,用小剪刀在酒窝之间剪一个口子约1公分深,在口子里插入洋葱片,剪一个口子就插一块洋葱,分布均匀地剪和插;& B! g4 ?$ z% A
十一、然后均匀地撒上黑椒粉和粗盐(海盐);
; Q( _) d4 Z# c3 z; K十二、再拿入预热了的烤箱烤15-18分钟,375-400°F,在烤10分钟左右时,转动烤盆180° ,再放入烤箱,继续烤完剩下的时间,烤好后的面包,用手指轻扣会发出“卟卟”的空洞声,说明已经烤好了,烤好后脱模切成块即可食用。

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成品图:

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经验小窍门:
, V: J8 b. p# D, V# |一、Focaccia 是扁平面包,别看把面团摊在烤盘上比较扁平,但一经烘焙,就会升高;% O6 d4 ?1 h, {6 w# |7 ]
二、用可以用来入烤箱的玻璃烤盘烤面包比较好,玻璃盘表面光滑,容易脱模;/ b& z' j( }0 ^* {+ n0 G
三、Focaccia 形状可以是圆的,也可以是正方或长方的,如果是方的,要把面团向四角抻好;
( o/ f8 \! D; X4 \7 A四、Focaccia 面上插的材料不一定是洋葱,也可以是蒜片、迷迭香、九层塔或黑橄榄片,本人比较偏向用蒜片和迷迭香,这次试用洋葱,效果也是不错的;* O0 S# }# g5 Y8 |
五、贴上提供的时间和温度仅供参考,不是绝对准确的,因每个家庭的烤箱,虽然所用的刻度相同,但实际的热度是有出入的,应该根据自己的特点而调节时间和温度,比如:您按照某贴或书提供的温度,把相应的食物烤得过焦,下次你在烤食物时就应该把烤箱的刻度降低,如果您按照某贴或书提供的温度,烤得不够熟或足够,您就要相应地加大少少刻度来烤,时间也一样,也应该作相应的调节,自己的烤箱,用多几次,就心里有数了。0 w/ R6 o3 e; {# U
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谢谢来访!!
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